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By Subject - Philosophy of Science
TitleAuthorDescription
American Ideology of National Science, 1919-1930Ronald TobeyA provocative analysis of the movement to establish a national science program in the early twentieth century. Led by several influential scientists who had participated in centralized scientific enterprises during World War I, the new effort t was an attempt to return to earlier progressive values in the hope of producing science for society's benefit.

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Book that Shook the WorldJulian HuxleyFive essays from noted theologians, philosophers and biologists discuss the impact of Darwin’s On the Origin of Species on their respective fields.

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Challenge of the Social and the Pressure of PracticeMartin CarrierPhilosophers, sociologists, and historians of science offer a multidisciplinary view of the complex interrelationships of values in science and society, in both contemporary and historic contexts. They analyze the impact of commercialization and politicization on epistemic aspirations, and conversely, the ethical dilemmas raised by “practically relevant” science in today's society.

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Commodification of Academic ResearchHans RadderSelling science has become a common practice in contemporary universities. This commodification of academia pervades many aspects of higher education. This volume offers the first book-length analysis of this disturbing trend from a philosophical perspective and presents views by scholars of philosophy of science, social and political philosophy, and research ethics.

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Concepts, Theories, and Rationality in the Biological SciencesGereon WoltersLeading biologists and philosophers of biology discuss the basic theories and concepts of biology and their connections with ethics, economics, and psychology, providing a remarkably unified report on the “state of the art” in the philosophy of biology.

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Cosmos of ScienceJohn EarmanThe Cosmos of Science presents a cross section of the best work currently being done in history and philosophy of science, exploring fundamental questions in four major areas: history of science; foundations of mathematics and physics; induction and scientific methodology; and action and rationality. Together these essays reveal the coherence and order of the cosmos of science.

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Ending the Mendel-Fisher ControversyAllan Franklin Gregor Mendel's “Experiments in Plant-Hybridization,” presented in 1865, became the foundation of modern genetics. Did his research follow the rigors of real scientific inquiry, or was Mendel's data too good to be true-the product of doctored statistics? In this book, leading experts present their conclusions on the legendary controversy surrounding the challenge to Mendel's findings by British statistician and biologist R. A. Fisher. In 1936, Fisher suggested that Mendel's data could have been falsified in order to support his expectations. This volume includes an overview of the controversy; the original papers of Mendel and Fisher; four of the most important papers on the debate; and new updates, by the authors, of the latter four papers, making this book the definitive last word on the subject.

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Foundations of Scientific InferenceWesley SalmonAfter its publication in 1967, The Foundations of Scientific Inference taught a generation of students and researchers about the problem of induction, the interpretation of probability, and confirmation theory. Fifty years later, Wesley C. Salmon’s book remains one of the clearest introductions to these fundamental problems in the philosophy of science. This anniversary edition of Salmon’s foundational work features a detailed introduction by Christopher Hitchcock, which examines the book’s origins, influences, and major themes, its impact and enduring effects, the disputes it raised, and its place in current studies, revisiting Salmon’s ideas for a new audience of philosophers, historians, scientists, and students.

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Four Decades of Scientific ExplanationWesley SalmonFirst published in 1989, this book presents and analyzes the dramatic changes in philosophical conceptions of scientific explanation after the landmark 1948 essayStudies in the Logic of Explanation by Carl Hempel and Paul Oppenheim.

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From Quarks to QuasarsRobert ColodnyIn these essays, four philosophers and one physicist consider the interactions of mathematics and physics with logic and philosophy in the era of modern science.

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Frontiers of Science and PhilosophyRobert ColodnySix essays by noted philosophers of science include the following topics: explanation in science and in history; philosophy and the scientific image of man; psychoanalysis and parapsychology; the conceptual basis of the biological sciences; the nature of time; and problems of microphysics.

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InterpretationPeter MachamerThe act of interpretation occurs in nearly every area of the arts and sciences. That ubiquity serves as the inspiration for the fourteen essays of this volume, covering many of the domains in which interpretive practices are found.

Contributors:
Andreas Blank, Cornelius Borck, Paul M. Churchland, George Gale, Annemarie Gethmann-Siefert, Kristin Gjesdal, Ruth Lorand, Christoph Lumer, Peter Machamer, Paolo Parrini, Nicholas Rescher, Ulrich Sautter, Kenneth F. Schaffner, Catherine Wilson
Life OrganicErik PetersonThis book tells the forgotten story of the pursuit of a Third Way in biology, known by many names, including “the organic philosophy”—including the scientists who defined and refined it and its persistence into the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. It considers the creation of the subfield of epigenetics, a product of Third Way thinking, rooted among a group of scholars known as the Theoretical Biology Club. And it raises significant questions about how we should model the development of the discipline of biology.

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Limits of ScienceNicholas RescherNicholas Rescher discusses the theoretical limits of science, emphasizing what it can discover, not what it should discover. He explores both the ideological and economic obstacles to scientific progress with a precision and clarity that makes his book accessible to philosophers and non-philosophers alike.

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Logic, Language, and the Structure of Scientific TheoriesWesley SalmonThis volume honors and examines the founders of the philosophy of logical empiricism. Historical and interpretive essays clarify the scientific philosophies of Carnap, Reichenbach, Hempel, Kant, and others, while exploring the main topics of logical empiricist philosophy of science.
Logic, Laws, and LifeRobert ColodnyThis volume centers on philosophical issues of the life sciences, particularly genetics and psychology, and relevant statistical theories.

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Logical EmpiricismPaolo ParriniThis collection of essays reexamines the origins of logical empiricism and offers fresh insights into its relationship to contemporary philosophy of science.

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Metaphysics and ExplanationW. CapitanThis volume offers an unusual variety of topics presented during the fifth annual Oberlin Colloquium in Philosophy. Essays topics include: a dispute of the standard deductivist account of scientific testability; two definitions of “nonsense” that are closely related and correlate to science's concern with truth and philosophy's concern with concepts; contesting the causes of voluntary actions purported in Hart and Honoré's Causation and the Law; distinguishing two kinds of metaphysical tasks-taxonomic and evaluative; and discussions of “what a thing is” in terms of its qualities and particulars and the distinction between numerical and conceptual differences, universals and individuation.

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Microeconomic LawsAlexander RosenbergRosenberg applies current thinking in philosophy of science to neoclassical economics in order to assess its claims to scientific standing. Although philosophers have used history and psychology as paradigms for the examination of social science, there is good reason to believe that economics is a more appropriate subject for analysis: it is the most systematized and quantified of the social sciences; its practitioners have reached a measure of consensus on important aspects of their subject; and it encompasses a large number of apparently law-like propositions.

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MindscapesMartin CarrierWinner of the the 2016 Southern Cone Studies Section Social Sciences Book Award from the Latin American Studies Association

The philosophy of the mind is at the central core of this volume. Essays examine topics such as folk psychology, neuropsychology, psychoanalytic theory, the role of mental content in voluntary action, the functional and qualitative properties of color, meanings as conceptual structures, cognitive luck, and animal cognition.

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Nature and Function of Scientific TheoriesRobert ColodnySix philosophical essays discuss: a realist view of science; critiquing a core tenet of positivism; the representational aspect of scientific theories and their isomorphic qualities; deconstructing ambiguities in inductive logic; common sense vs. the world view of science; the actuality of conceptual revolutions in the history of science vs. traditional philosophy on scientific theory-building.

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Nature From WithinMichael HeidelbergerTranslated from German, this exhaustive exploration of Fechner’s impact on philosophy and science is an invaluable historical text.

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No Easy AnswersAllan Franklin Offers an accurate picture of science through the examination of nontechnical case studies which illustrate the various roles that experiment plays in science. Examines both sucessful and unsucessful experiments to show how scientists use experimental evidence and critical discussion to expand our knowlege of the natural world.

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On Leibniz Expanded EditionNicholas RescherOn Leibniz examines many aspects of Leibniz’s work and life. This expanded edition adds new chapters that explore Leibniz’s revolutionary deciphering machine; his theoretical interest in cryptography and its ties to algebra; his thoughts on eternal recurrence theory; his rebuttal of the thesis of improvability in the world and cosmos; and an overview of American scholarship on Leibniz.
Paradigms and ParadoxesRobert ColodnyThis volume gathers experts in physics, logic and philosophy to discuss developments in space exploration and nuclear science and their impact on the philosophy of science.

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Peeling Potatoes or Grinding LensesAristides BaltasMore than 250 years separate the publication of Baruch Spinoza’s Ethics and Ludwig Wittgenstein’s Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus. In Peeling Potatoes or Grinding Lenses, Aristides Baltas contends that these works bear a striking similarity based on the idea of “radical immanence.” He analyzes the structure and content of each treatise, the authors’ intentions, the limitations and possibilities afforded by scientific discovery in their respective eras, their radical opposition to prevailing philosophical views, and draws out the particulars, as well as the implications, of the arresting match between the two.
Philosophical Problems of the Internal and External WorldsJohn EarmanThe inaugural volume of the series, devoted to the work of philosopher Adolf Grünbaum, encompasses the philosophical problems of space, time, and cosmology, the nature of scientific methodology, and the foundations of psychoanalysis.

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Philosophy of Scientific ExperimentationHans RadderThe Philosophy of Scientific Experimentation is a collection of essays that focuses on the identification and clarification of philosophical issues in experimental science, such as the link between science and technology, the role of theory in experimentation involving material and causal intervention, and the impact of modeling and computer simulation on experimentation.

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Readings on Laws of NatureJohn CarrollThe first anthology to offer a contemporary overview of the problem of laws—an area of study that has become increasingly central to the philosophy of science. The book covers a broad range of views, and consists exclusively of articles that have proven to be influential.
Reconsidering Michael Polanyi’s PhilosophyStefania Ruzsits JhaA comprehensive reexamination of the work of the twentieth-century scientist-turned-philosopher Michael Polanyi that offers a deeper understanding of his theories and rationale.

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Responsible ScientistJohn ForgeForge examines the challenges of social, moral, and legal responsibility faced by today's scientists. He presents a broad overview of many areas of scientific endeavor, citing the responsibility of corporations, employees, and groups of scientists as judged by the values of science and society's appraisals of actions and outcomes. Forge maintains that ultimate responsibility lies in the hands of the individual—the responsible scientist—who must exhibit the foresight to anticipate the use and abuse of his or her work.

Winner of the 2010 Eureka Prize for Research in Ethics from the Australian Catholic University

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Science as It Could Have BeenLena SolerScience as It Could Have Been focuses on the crucial issue of contingency within science. It considers a number of case studies, past and present, from a wide range of scientific disciplines—physics, biology, geology, mathematics, and psychology—to explore whether components of human science are inevitable, or if we could have developed an alternative successful science based on essentially different notions, conceptions, and results.

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Science at Century’s EndMartin CarrierTwenty penetrating essays by prominent philosophers and historians who explore and debate the limits of scientific inquiry and their presumed consequences for science in the 21st century.

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Science Transformed?Alfred NordmannAdvancements in computing, instrumentation, robotics, digital imaging, and simulation modeling have changed science into a technology-driven institution. Government, industry, and society increasingly exert their influence over science, raising questions of values and objectivity. These and other profound changes have led many to speculate that we are in the midst of an epochal break in scientific history. This edited volume presents an in-depth examination of these issues from philosophical, historical, social, and cultural perspectives. It offers arguments both for and against the epochal break thesis.
Science, Policy, and the Value-Free IdealHeather DouglasDouglas challenges the traditional value-free ideal, and proposes a new ideal for values in science. She argues that the distinction between junk science and sound science lies in the roles values play at key points throughout science, and that constraining those roles is central to protecting the integrity and objectivity of science.

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Science, Reason, and RhetoricHenry KripsThrough essays on both rhetorical theory and case studies, leaders in the disciplines of rhetoric, sociology, philosophy, and history converge and clash to explore the rhetoric of science.

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Science, Values, and ObjectivityPeter MachamerCollection of essays that identify the values crucial to science, distinguish some of the criteria that can be used for value identification, and elaborate the conditions for warranting certain values as necessary or central to scientific research.

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Scientific Models in Philosophy of ScienceDaniela Bailer-JonesA comprehensive philosophical analysis of the use of scientific models in historic and contemporary contexts.

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Scientific Pluralism ReconsideredStephanie RuphyThis book offers a critical overview and a new structure of the debate on unity versus plurality in science. It focuses on the methodological, epistemic, and metaphysical commitments of various philosophical attitudes surrounding monism and pluralism, and offers novel perspectives and pluralist theses on scientific methods and objects, reductionism, plurality of representations, natural kinds, and scientific classifications.

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Scientific UnderstandingHenk de RegtExamines the essential role of understanding in the scientific process, through three key topics: understanding and explanation, understanding and models, and understanding in scientific practice.

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Selectivity and DiscordAllan Franklin Addresses the fundamental question of whether there are grounds for belief in experimental results. Allan Franklin demonstrates that experimental results are not mere social constructions, and can be used as a basis for scientific knowledge.

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Shifting StandardsAllan Franklin Allan Franklin provides an overview of notable experiments in particle physics. Using papers published in Physical Review, the journal of the American Physical Society, as his basis, Franklin details the experiments themselves, their data collection, the events witnessed, and the interpretation of results. From these papers, he distills the dramatic changes to particle physics experimentation from 1894 through 2009.
Solomon Maimon Meir BuzagloEven though the philosophy of Solomon Maimon (1753-1800) is usually considered an important link between Kant’s transcendental philosophy and German idealism, his ideas have been neglected over the past two centuries. In this book Meir Buzaglo reconstructs Maimon’s philosophy, emphasizing the importance of its mathematics.

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Statistical Explanation and Statistical RelevanceWesley SalmonThrough his S–R model of statistical relevance, Wesley Salmon offers a solution to the scientific explanation of objectively improbable events. Two other essays compliment the statisticl relevance model.

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Theories on the Scrap HeapJohn LoseeUsing a wide variety of examples of rejected scientific theories, Losee provides an unusually clear analysis of the way scientific method works.

Winner of an Outstanding Academic Title Award from Choice Magazine (2006).
Theory and Method in the NeurosciencesPeter MachamerThis volume surveys the nature and structure of theories in contemporary neuroscience, exploring many of its methodological techniques and problems.

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Thinking About CausesPeter MachamerEmerging as a hot topic in the mid-twentieth century, causality is one of the most frequently discussed issues in contemporary philosophy. Thinking About Causes brings together top philosophers from the United States and Europe to focus on causality as a major force in philosophical and scientific thought.

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What Makes a Good Experiment?Allan Franklin What makes a good experiment? Although experimental evidence plays an essential role in science, there is no algorithm or simple set of criteria for ranking or evaluating good experiments, and therefore no definitive answer to the question. Experiments can, in fact, be good in any number of ways: conceptually good, methodologically good, technically good, and pedagogically important. This book provides details of good experiments, with examples from physics and biology.
William Whewell's Theory of Scientific MethodRobert ButtsWilliam Whewell is considered one of the most important nineteenth-century British philosophers of science and a contributor to modern philosophical thought, particularly regarding the problem of induction and the logic of discovery. In this volume, Robert E. Butts offers selections from Whewell's most important writings, and analysis of counter-claims to his philosophy.

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World ChangesPaul HorwichProminent philosophers analyze the work of Thomas Kuhn, including his monumental study The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, from a broad perspective, comparing earlier logical empiricism and logical positivism with the new philosophy inspired by Kuhn in the early 1960s.
World Observed/The World ConceivedHans RadderProvides an innovative analysis of the nature and interplay of observation and conceptualization. Radder shows that observation is always conceptually interpreted, and concepts affect the way observational processes are conducted in the first place.

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